The Chinese Filipinos and Language: Contact, Mixing, and Identity BY Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales
This paper explores the relationship of Chinese Filipinos and language. Situated in the peripheries of both Philippine and Chinese societies, the Chinese Filipinos are in a unique social situation where they negotiate their identities. This negotiation can be through language. Given that the Chinese Filipinos are multilingual in at least English, Tagalog, and a Sinitic language (most likely Southern Min, hence Hokkien) and that they use these languages (in varying degrees), contact between these languages is inevitable. Previous research has focused on influence of Hokkien to Tagalog (Chan-Yap 1976; Zulueta 2007), but there is also influence of English, Tagalog, and other languages to Hokkien, for example. The interaction among the languages in the Chinese Filipino language ecology (Gonzales 2017) is multidirectional. One of the many outcomes of intense contact is Philippine Hybrid Hokkien (PHH) (Gonzales 2018). Based on social and structural features that I will highlight during the presentation, I illustrate that PHH can be regarded a (mixed) language in its own right. I argue that PHH is a distinct phenomenon from code-switching in the Grosjeanian sense. I also provide evidence that it is endangered. An Assessment of the Influence and Impact of the Chinese Learning Culture on Chinese Filipino Students By Ulysses Yu and Serina Mara Alonzo
An Assessment of the Influence and Impact of the Chinese Learning Culture on Chinese Filipino Students By Ulysses Yu and Serina Mara Alonzo
The socio-cultural environment and cultural presuppositions play a vital role in a student’s attitude towards learning. In the educational perspective, existing researches on the Chinese learning culture of Chinese students reveals a set of prevailing characteristics also evident among students in the Chinese Filipino community, especially when set in the Asian global cultural context. The Chinese learning style finds its roots in the Confucian heritage and is characterized by a more field-dependent, teacher-centered, indirect-communication, theory-oriented and synthetic-thinking approach to learning. Students of Filipino-Chinese high schools are described to have a more rote, silent and passive style of learning compared to that of their peers from non-Chinese schools. This study begins with an assumption that on a larger scale, students of the Chinese learning culture might have a more difficult time adjusting to the demands of progressive, cross-cultural and dynamic higher education curricula; and as a response, this study aims to take a closer look at the Chinese learning culture in the Philippines by assessing its impact on the first three batches of senior high school graduates of the HUMSS strand of different Filipino-Chinese high schools within Metro Manila.
From Hokkien to Southeast Asian Hokkien: Case study of the Herzog August Philippine Chinese manuscript BY Fabio Yuchung Lee
This article will focus on a set of manuscripts held in Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel, Germany, which was written by Philippine Chinese in the 17th century. It includes the Foranji Huarenhua Bu, Lishubu, and five other letters. In addition to Hokkien business networks formed in Manila, Cebu, Oton in the Philippine Islands, as well as Tidore in the Maluku Islands, the author will also discuss the situation of retail business ran by local Hokkienese in Manila. Finally, by utilizing the Spanish vocabulary and conversation listed in the manuscripts, the author will explore the Philippine Chinese society at that time and its inner qualities. However, from the existing researches, the language exchange we noticed seemed to be one-way street. Thus, most of the current sources and researches outcome are from single direction of “language contact” presented by the West world. Limited to insufficient research sources from Chinese people learning Portuguese, Spanish or Dutch in 16th and 17th Centuries, it became obstacles for researchers who desire to go further of understanding how does a 17th century Manila Sangley learn Spanish? Especially.