Maritime Studies and the Role of Ethnic Chinese by Aurora Roxas Lim
Maritime Studies is a very important field of discipline. It covers many aspects of social-historical-technological aspects of human civilization. Shipping, boat and ship building, navigation, fishing, aquatic industries have profound impact on technological advances and the formation of social-political institutions. The archipelagic configuration of the Philippines, its location between the West Philippine Sea (South China Sea) and the Pacific Ocean shaped a predominantly marine-oriented culture. In fact, the basic social-political unit is called a barangay – meaning organized migration by sea. Moreover, inland seas, rivers, lakes, canals serve as transportation- communication networks linking coastal and riverine populations like the Tagalog, Sugbuhanon and Tausug to inland, mountain populations. It is the contention of this paper that like the ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia, plains and coastal populations tend to overshadow inland, mountain populations by virtue of their shipping, navigational and trading skills. The paper will discuss the significant role of the ethnic Chinese in shipping, boat building and fisheries and other aquatic industries in Mindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi in contemporary times. It will discuss modern shipping companies that operate in the region. However, it will focus more on traditional wooden hulled boats of various types that serve inland seas and waterways where bigger shipping lines do not operate. This is an area where ethnic Chinese also play a key role. It will discuss the economic -social-political ramifications of boat building and fishing and aquatic industries. Finally it will point out areas for further research that can help our government in the formulation of national development programs in order to bring about peace and more equitable distribution of economic gains.
Philippines-China Counter Terrorism Cooperation under the Duterte Administration: Small State Diplomacy with Major Power by Rommel C. Banlaoi, PhD
Since the liberation of Marawi from the siege of Islamic State fighters, the Philippines and China have been pursuing counter terrorism cooperation. Though both countries still have unresolved territorial disputes in the South China Sea, the Philippines opts to cooperate rather than compete with China. Counter terrorism is one area where the Philippines and China decide to cooperate rather than compete. How can we explain this kind of foreign policy behavior? What motivates a small state, like the Philippines, to cooperate with a major power, like China? On the other hand, what compels a big power to cooperate with a small state? This paper argues that in the contemporary international politics, small states matter to big powers. This realization encourages small states to pursue a type of diplomacy that is intended to engage major powers in a complex web of cooperative undertakings in various areas. Despite their asymmetrical power relations, small powers can attract major powers to cooperate because small states have derivative and collective powers that major powers cannot ignore. This paper takes Philippines-China counter terrorism cooperation as a case to demonstrate the value of small state diplomacy with the major power under the Duterte Administration.
A Government Within a Government: Nationalist China, the Philippine Military, and the Yuyitungs, 1950-1970 by Chien-Wen Kung
No overseas Chinese community in the world was as supportive of the Kuomintang (KMT) regime in Taiwan than that in the Philippines, and few episodes capture the relationship between Taipei, Manila, and the Philippine Chinese better than the Yuyitung Affair of 1970. On May 4 that year, Quintin and Rizal Yuyitung, publisher and editor respectively of the Chinese Commercial News (CCN), were arrested by military police and deported to Taiwan on charges of printing pro-communist propaganda. There, on August 14, Quintin was sentenced to two years of reformatory education and Rizal to three. Drawing mostly upon Taiwanese Foreign Ministry Archives, “A Government Within a Government” explains how the brothers were the victims of a secret campaign orchestrated by the Philippine military, local Chinese conservatives, and Republic of China officials. This “Nationalist Chinese bloc” collected, fabricated, and interpreted intelligence to assist the military in making a case for deportation. Despite the Yuyitungs’ innocence, most if not all anti-CCN actors believed that they supported communism; to them, the CCN’s centrist, independent editorial policy was intolerably leftist. This paper shows how the KMT coordinated with like-minded ideologues beyond Taiwan to invent the “Chinese communist” and assert its sovereign claims upon Southeast Asia’s Chinese.